Catching up: homebrew retro computer projects (Z80 and 68010)

Another catchup post, about my homebrew retro-computer projects. This started in 2016 when I made an extremely rudimentary, completely lacking in I/O capability, but extremely educational Z80 computer. I uploaded a video about it on youtube, while it was still on the breadboard stage, which demonstrated very clearly how the Z80 computer fetches and executes instructions by single-stepping the clock and inspecting the state of the data and address busses, as well as some important processor control signals at each step. Later I uploaded a short followup video to let it execute the program with a free-running clock. I also did a talk with the same demonstration at fosscomm 2016 with the final PCB version of this computer, but unfortunately there is no video of the event.

rudimentary Z80 8-bit computer

The next step was to make an improved homebrew computer, with proper I/O capabilities, which would be actually usable as a computer instead of just an educational demonstration. Initially I started designing an improved 8-bit computer based again on the Z80 processor, but soon I scrapped those plans and designed a 16-bit computer based on the Motorola 68000 processor instead.

The first video I uploaded about the 68k computer project was actually an attempt to familiarize myself with the processor by performing a similar single-stepping experiment again. This time I thought it would be fun to use a switches and LEDs panel similar to the old PDP or Altair interfaces to feed the processor with opcodes during the bus cycles. The video is somewhat long-winded, but I think if you skip the boring introduction, it’s also very educational, showing how to assemble a test program by hand, and how to coerce the 68k to single-step bus cycles while still keeping a continuously running clock, which is required for this processor to maintain its internal state.

I also uploaded a short followup progress report video shortly thereafter, with the computer constructed on a proper PCB, which shows the serial I/O interface and a bug in my initial design.

The computer works in this simple state, and I’m able to upload cross-compiled C programs through the serial port, and run them. It was a lot of fun reaching this stage, but then I got too lazy and didn’t even upload a proper demonstration video for that, or continue improving it for some time now.

homebrew 16bit motorola 68010 computer.

To make it more interesting, I made a test program for my 68k computer which calculates a koch snowflake fractal, and sends graphics commands to the serial terminal to draw it. Here’s a screenshot of xterm, which supports the vt330/vt340 ReGIS graphics commands.

My 68010 computer drew its first fractal


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